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Use of signs and symbols to increase the efficacy of pedestrian activated flashing beacons at crosswalks. Transportation Research Record, 1999. No. 1638, 92-95.

Abstract
This experiment evaluated two strategies for increasing the percentage of motorists yielding to pedestrians at crosswalks equipped with pedestrian activated flashing beacons. One method involved adding an illuminated sign, with the standard pedestrian symbol next to the beacons. The second method involved erecting signs 50 m before the crosswalk that displayed the pedestrian symbol and requested motorists to yield when the beacons were flashing. Both interventions increased yielding behavior and the effect of both together was greater than either alone. However, only the sign requesting motorist to yield when the beacons were flashing was effective in reducing motor vehicle-pedestrian conflicts.

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