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  Safety Benefits of Advance Stop Lines at Signalized Intersections: Results of Field Evaluation. ITE Journal, in press.

More than 80,000 pedestrian injuries occur annually in the United States. Pedestrian crashes are mostly an urban problem. A primary countermeasure recommendation based on analysis of urban pedestrian crashes is to improve motorist visibility of pedestrians. One technique for improving motorist visibility of pedestrians in crosswalks and for increasing the separation between motor vehicles and pedestrians may be to move stop lines farther back from the crosswalk than the standard four-foot distance to increase the separation between stopped vehicles and pedestrian crosswalks. The present study investigated driver compliance with advanced stop lines at signalized intersections and potential safety benefits resulting from their use. Painted stop lines were relocated from 4 feet behind the crosswalk to a distance of 20 feet from the crosswalk at four experimental sites. Overall, 57 percent of drivers complied with the experimental advanced stop lines. The installation of advanced stop lines resulted in a significant increase in the percent of drivers that stopped at least 4 feet from the crosswalk and a significant decrease in the percent of drivers that stopped within the crosswalk. There also was a significant increase in the elapsed time for lead vehicles to enter the intersection after onset of the green signal, thus potentially reducing the risk of right-angle collisions caused by red light running. Advance stop lines appear to be a sensible and inexpensive safety enhancement for busy urban intersections.