Benefits of Advance Stop Lines at Signalized Intersections:
Results of Field Evaluation. ITE Journal, in press.
More than 80,000 pedestrian injuries occur annually in the
United States. Pedestrian crashes are mostly an urban problem.
A primary countermeasure recommendation based on analysis
of urban pedestrian crashes is to improve motorist visibility
of pedestrians. One technique for improving motorist visibility
of pedestrians in crosswalks and for increasing the separation
between motor vehicles and pedestrians may be to move stop
lines farther back from the crosswalk than the standard
four-foot distance to increase the separation between stopped
vehicles and pedestrian crosswalks. The present study investigated
driver compliance with advanced stop lines at signalized
intersections and potential safety benefits resulting from
their use. Painted stop lines were relocated from 4 feet
behind the crosswalk to a distance of 20 feet from the crosswalk
at four experimental sites. Overall, 57 percent of drivers
complied with the experimental advanced stop lines. The
installation of advanced stop lines resulted in a significant
increase in the percent of drivers that stopped at least
4 feet from the crosswalk and a significant decrease in
the percent of drivers that stopped within the crosswalk.
There also was a significant increase in the elapsed time
for lead vehicles to enter the intersection after onset
of the green signal, thus potentially reducing the risk
of right-angle collisions caused by red light running. Advance
stop lines appear to be a sensible and inexpensive safety
enhancement for busy urban intersections.